A global catastrophic risk (GCR) is an event that poses a risk of major harm on a global scale (Bostrom & Ćirković 2008).

GCRs risks include, but are not restricted to, existential risks. Examples of non-existential GCRs include risks of hundreds of millions of people dying due to a natural pandemic or due to anthropogenic climate change.

Such catastrophic risks have obviously bad direct effects: they may involve many people dying, or our technological capabilities being greatly reduced. There may also be bad indirect effects, for instance by destabilizing political systems in a way that increases the likelihood of war or totalitarian government....

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