Global dystopia

A global dystopia is a global civilization devoid of most value. Unrecoverable global dystopias constitute a distinct kind of existential catastrophe.

Toby Ord divides dystopias into three types. A dystopia may be desired by either none, some, or all of those living under it. Ord calls these undesired dystopias, enforced dystopias, and desired dystopias, respectively (Ord 2020: ch. 5).

Enforced dystopias

Enforced dystopias are the most familiar type of dystopia. In fiction, they are most prominently represented by George Orwell's Nineteen-Eighty Four: "If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face— for ever." (Orwell 1949: ch. 3). In reality, North Korea arguably offers an example of a local stable dystopia (Drescher 2017; Drescher 2020). Forced dystopias often assume the form of a robust totalitarianism, though this need not be so....

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