The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (often abbreviated Pugwash) is an international organization focused on reducing global catastrophic risks posed by nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.


Pugwash was founded in 1957 by Bertrand Russell and Joseph Rotblat, following the release of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto two years earlier. That document expressed the opinion that "scientists should assemble in conference to appraise the perils that have arisen as a result of the development of weapons of mass destruction", and Pugwash was an attempt to create just such a forum, to facilitate communication between East and West by bringing together eminent scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain.

In 1995, Pugwash and Rotblat were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms."[1]...

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