All of Jess_Riedel's Comments + Replies

Certificates of impact

Paul Graham writes that Noora Health is doing something like this.

https://twitter.com/Jess_Riedel/status/1389599895502278659

https://opensea.io/assets/0x495f947276749ce646f68ac8c248420045cb7b5e/96773753706640817147890456629920587151705670001482122310561805592519359070209

TAI Safety Bibliographic Database

Regarding your 4 criteria, I think they don't really delineate how to make the sort of judgment calls we're discussing here, so it really seems like it should be about a 5th criterion that does delineate that.

Sorry I was unclear.  Those were just 4 desiderata that the criteria need to satisfy; the desiderata weren't intended to fully specify the criteria.

If a small group of researchers at MIRI were trying to do work on verification but not getting much traction in the academic community, my intuition is that their papers would reliably meet your crite

... (read more)
TAI Safety Bibliographic Database

Sure, sure, we tried doing both of these. But they were just taking way too long in terms of new papers surfaced per hour worked. (Hence me asking for things that are more efficient than looking at reference lists from review articles and emailing the orgs.) Following the correct (promising) citation trail also relies more heavily on technical expertise, which neither Angelica nor I have.

I would love to have some collaborators with expertise in the field to assist on the next version. As mentioned, I think it would make a good side project for a grad student, so feel to nudge yours to contact us!

TAI Safety Bibliographic Database

for instance if you think Wong and Cohen should be dropped then about half of the DeepMind papers should be too since they're on almost identical topics and some are even follow-ups to the Wong paper).

Yea, I'm saying I would drop most of those too.

I think focusing on motivation rather than results can also lead to problems, and perhaps contributes to organization bias (by relying on branding to asses motivation).

I agree this can contribute to organizational bias.

I do agree that counterfactual impact is a good metric, i.e. you should be less excite

... (read more)
0jsteinhardt9moThanks, that's helpful. If you're saying that the stricter criterion would also apply to DM/CHAI/etc. papers then I'm not as worried about bias against younger researchers. Regarding your 4 criteria, I think they don't really delineate how to make the sort of judgment calls we're discussing here, so it really seems like it should be about a 5th criterion that does delineate that. I'm not sure yet how to formulate one that is time-efficient, so I'm going to bracket that for now (recognizing that might be less useful for you), since I think we actually disagree about in principle what papers are building towards TAI safety. To elaborate, let's take verification as an example (since it's relevant to the Wong & Kolter paper). Lots of people think verification is helpful for TAI safety--MIRI has talked about it in the past, and very long-termist people like Paul Christiano are excited about it as a current direction afaik. If a small group of researchers at MIRI were trying to do work on verification but not getting much traction in the academic community, my intuition is that their papers would reliably meet your criteria. Now the reality is that verification does have lots of traction in the academic community, but why is that? It's because Wong & Kolter and Raghunathan et al. wrote two early papers that provided promising paths forward on neural net verification, which many other people are now trying to expand on. This seems strictly better to me than the MIRI example, so it seems like either: -The hypothetical MIRI work shouldn't have made the cut -There's actually two types of verification work (call them VerA and VerB), such that hypothetical MIRI was working on VerA that was relevant, while the above papers are VerB which is not relevant. -Papers should make the cut on factors other than actual impact, e.g. perhaps the MIRI papers should be included because they're from MIRI, or you should want to highlight them more because they didn't get traction. -Somet
TAI Safety Bibliographic Database

Thanks Jacob.  That last link is broken for me, but I think you mean this?

 You sort of acknowledge this already, but one bias in this list is that it's very tilted towards large organizations like DeepMind, CHAI, etc.

Well,  it's biased toward safety organizations, not large organizations.  (Indeed, it seems to be biased toward small safety organizations over larges ones since they tend to reply to our emails!)  We get good coverage of small orgs like Ought, but you're right we don't have a way to easily track individual unaffiliate... (read more)

7jsteinhardt9moYeah, good point. I agree it's more about organizations (although I do think that DeepMind is benefiting a lot here, e.g. you're including a fairly comprehensive list of their adversarial robustness work while explicitly ignoring that work at large--it's not super-clear on what grounds, for instance if you think Wong and Cohen should be dropped then about half of the DeepMind papers should be too since they're on almost identical topics and some are even follow-ups to the Wong paper). That seems wrong to me, but maybe that's a longer conversation. (I agree that similar papers would probably have come out within the next 3 years, but asking for that level of counterfactual irreplacibility seems kind of unreasonable imo.) I also think that the majority of the CHAI and DeepMind papers included wouldn't pass that test (tbc I think they're great papers! I just don't really see what basis you're using to separate them). I think focusing on motivation rather than results can also lead to problems, and perhaps contributes to organization bias (by relying on branding to asses motivation). I do agree that counterfactual impact is a good metric, i.e. you should be less excited about a paper that was likely to soon happen anyways; maybe that's what you're saying? But that doesn't have much to do with motivation. Also let me be clear that I'm very glad this database exists, and please interpret this as constructive feedback rather than a complaint.
Quantum computing timelines

Jaime gave a great thorough explanation. My catch-phrase version: This is not a holistic Bayesian prediction. The confidence intervals come from bootstrapping (re-sampling) a fixed dataset, not summing over all possible future trajectories for reality.

Use resilience, instead of imprecision, to communicate uncertainty

I was curious about the origins of this concept in the EA community since I think it's correct, insightful, and I personally had first noticed it in conversation among people at Open Phil. On Twitter, @alter_ego_42 pointed out the existence of the Credal Resilience page in the "EA concepts" section of this website. That page cites

Skyrms, Brian. 1977. Resiliency, propensities, and causal necessity. The journal of philosophy 74(11): 704-713. [PDF]

which is the earliest thorough academic reference to this idea that I know of. With apologies t... (read more)

5MichaelA1y(In a similar spirit of posting things somewhat related to this general topic while apologising to Greg for doing so...) A few months ago, I collected on LessWrong [https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/gcEayv6HtBogfov2n/michaela-s-shortform?commentId=otZLATzjTfMRuE9JA] a variety of terms I'd found for describing something like the “trustworthiness” of probabilities, along with quotes and commentary about those terms. Specifically, the terms included: * Epistemic credentials * Resilience (of credences) * Evidential weight (balance vs weight of evidence) * Probability distributions (and confidence intervals) * Precision, sharpness, vagueness * Haziness * Hyperpriors, credal sets, and other things I haven't really learned about It's possible that some readers of this post would find that collection interesting/useful.
Notes on 'Atomic Obsession' (2009)

Were there a lot of new unknown or underappreciated facts in this book? From the summary, it sounds mostly like a reinterpretation of the standard history, which hinges on questions of historical determinism.

What's Changing With the New Forum?

Consider changing the visual format a bit to better distinguish this forum from LW. They are almost indistinguishable right now, especially once you scroll down just a bit and the logo disappears.

1Aaron Gertler3yThanks for the feedback, Jess! I'll make sure our tech team sees it.
Announcing the 2017 donor lottery

Could you explain your first sentence? What risks are you talking about?

Also, how does one lottery up further if all the block sizes are $100k? Diving it up into multiple blocks doesn't really work.

1SamDeere4yAn alternative model for variable pot sizes is to have a much larger guarantor (or a pool of guarantors), and then run rolling lotteries. Rather than playing against the pool, you're just playing against the guarantor, and you could set the pot size you wanted to draw up to (e.g. your $1000 donation could give you a 10% shot at a $10k pot, or a 1% shot at a $100k pot). The pot size should probably be capped (say, at $150k), both for the reasons Paul/Carl outlined re diminishing returns, and to avoid pathological cases (e.g. a donor taking a $100 bet on a billion dollars etc). Because you don't have to coordinate with other donors, the lottery is always open, and you could draw the lottery as soon as your payment cleared. Rather than getting the guarantor to allocate a losing donation, you could also 'reinvest' the donations into the overall lottery pool, so eventually the system is self-sustaining and doesn't require a third-party guarantor. [update: this model may not be legally possible, so possibly such a scheme would require an ongoing guarantor] This is more administratively complex (if only because we can't batch the manual parts of the process to defined times), but there's a more automated version of this which could be cool to run. At this stage I want validate the process of running the simpler version, and then if it's something there's demand for (and we have enough guarantor funds to make it feasible) we can look into running the rolling version sometime next year.
0Owen_Cotton-Barratt4yA simple variation on the current system would allow people to opt into lottery-ing up further (to the scale of the total donor lottery pot): Ask people what scale they would like to lottery to. If $100k, allocate them a range of tickets in one block as in the current system. If (say) $300k, split their tickets between three blocks, giving them the same range in each block. If their preferred scale exceeds the total pot, just give them correlated tickets on all available blocks. If there's a conflict of preference between people wanting small and large lotteries so they're not simultaneously satisfiable (I think this is somewhat unlikely in practice unless someone comes in with $90k hoping to lottery up to $100k), first satisfy those who want smaller totals, then divide the rest as fairly as possible.
0Paul_Christiano4yYou have diminishing returns to money, i.e. your utility vs. money curve is curved down. So a gamble with mean 0 has some cost to you, approximately (curvature) * (variance), that I was referring to as the cost-via-risk. This cost is approximately linear in the variance, and hence quadratic in the block size.
0CarlShulman4yProbably the risks of moving down the diminishing returns curve. E.g. if Good Ventures put its entire endowment into a donor lottery (e.g. run by BMGF) for a 1/5 chance of 5x endowment diminishing returns would mean that returns to charitable dollars would be substantially higher in the worlds where they lost than when they won. If they put 1% of their endowment into such a lottery this effect would be almost imperceptibly small but nonzero. Similar issues arise for the guarantor. With pots that are small relative to the overall field or the guarantor's budget (or the field of donors the guarantor considers good substitutes) these costs are tiny but for very big pots they become less negligible. Take your 100k and ask Paul (or CEA, to get in touch with another backstopping donor) for a personalized lottery. If very large it might involve some haircut for Paul. A donor with more resources could backstop a larger amount without haircut. If there is recurrent demand for this (probably after donor lotteries become more popular) then standardized arrangements for that would likely be set up (I would try to do so, at least).
Announcing the 2017 donor lottery

I'm curious about why blocks were chosen rather than just a single-lottery scheme, i.e., having all donors contribute to the same lottery, with a $100k backstop but no upper limit. The justification on the webpage is

Multiple blocks ensure that there is no cap on the number of donors who may enter the lottery, while ensuring that the guarantor's liability is capped at the block size.

But of course we could satisfy this requirement with the single-lottery scheme. The single-lottery scheme also has the benefits that (1) the guarantor has significantly le... (read more)

6Paul_Christiano4yA $200k lottery has about 4x as much cost-via-risk as a $100k lottery. Realistically I think that smaller sizes (with the option to lottery up further) are significantly better than bigger pots. As the pot gets bigger you need to do more and more thinking to verify that the risk isn't an issue. If you were OK with variable pot sizes, I think the thing to do would be: * The lottery will be divided up into blocks. * Each block will have have the same size, which will be something between $75k and $150k. * We provide a backstop only if the total donation is < $75k. Otherwise, we just divide the total up into chunks between $75k and $150k, aiming to be about $100k.
3CarlShulman4yThe point of a donor lottery is to help donors move to an efficient scale to research their donations or cut transaction costs. But there are important diminishing returns to donations if those donations are large relative to total funding for a cause or organization. So it is possible to have a pot that is inefficiently large, so that small donors risk not plucking low-hanging fruit. If the odds and payouts were determined by the unknown level of participation, then a surge of interest could result in an inefficiently large pot (worse, one that is set after people have entered). $100,000 is small enough relative to total EA giving, and most particular causes in EA, not to worry much about that, but large enough to support increased research while reducing the expected costs thereof. If a lottery winner, after some further consideration, wants to try to lottery up to a still larger scale they can request that. However, overly large pots cannot be retroactively shrunk after winning them. One of the most common mistakes people have on hearing about donor lotteries is worrying about donors with different priorities. So making it crystal clear that you don't affect the likelihood of payouts for donors to other causes (and thus the benefits of additional research and reduced transaction costs for others) is important.
An argument for broad and inclusive "mindset-focused EA"

EAs seems pretty open to the idea of being big-tent with respect to key normative differences (animals, future people, etc). But total indifference to cause area seems too lax. What if I just want to improve my local neighborhood or family? Or my country club? At some point, it becomes silly.

It might be worth considering parallels with the Catholic Church and the Jesuits. The broader church is "high level", but the requirements for membership are far from trivial.

2Kaj_Sotala4y"Total indifference to cause area" isn't quite how I'd describe my proposal - after all, we would still be talking about high-level EA, a lot of people would still be focused on high-level EA and doing that, etc. The general recommendation would still be to go into high-impact causes if you had no strong preference.
Introducing the EA Funds

The list of donation recipients from Nick's DAF is here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1H2hF3SaO0_QViYq2j1E7mwoz3sDjdf9pdtuBcrq7pRU/edit#gid=0

I don't believe there's been any write-ups or dollar amounts, except the above list is ordered by donation size.

Introducing the EA Funds

I am on the whole positive about this idea. Obviously, specialization is good, and creating dedicated fund managers to make donation decisions can be very beneficial. And it makes sense that the boundaries between these funds arise from normative differences between donors, while putting fund managers in charge of sorting out empirical questions about efficiency. This is just the natural extension, of the original GiveWell concept, to account for normative differences, and also to utilize some of the extra trust that some EAs will have for other people ... (read more)

3Kerry_Vaughan5yPart of the reason that CEA staff themselves are not fund managers is to help with this kind of conflict. I think that regardless of who we choose as fund managers, there is potential for recipients to develop personal connects with the fund managers and use that to their advantage. This seems true in almost any funding scheme were evaluating the people in charge is part of the selection process. Do you think EA Funds will make this worse somehow? We will definitely require some level of reporting from fund managers although we haven't yet determined how much and in what level of detail. As I mentioned in a different comment, I'd be interested in learning more about what people would like to see. Having Nick as a fund manager is a good test case since there's a conflict given that he's a CEA trustee. Our plan so far has been to make sure that we make the presence of this conflict well known. Do you think this is a good long term plan or would you prefer something else?
Effective Altruism Prediction Registry

Update: the Good Judgment Project has just launched Good Judgement Open. https://www.gjopen.com/

How valuable is movement growth?

I mostly agree with this. No need to reinvent the wheel, and armchair theorizing is so tempting, while sorting through the literature can be painful. But I will say your reason #1 (the typical sociological research is of very poor quality) leads to a second effect: scouring the literature for the useful bits (of which I am sure there is plenty) is very difficult and time consuming.

If we were talking about ending global poverty, we would not be postulating new models of economic development. Why should we demand any less empirical/academic rigor in the

... (read more)
Can we set up a system for international donation trading?

I am mildly worried that connecting strangers to make honor-system donation trades could lead to a dispute. There are going to be more and more new faces around if the various EA growth strategies this year pan out. The fact that donation trading has been going on smoothly until now means folks might get overly relaxed, and it only takes one publicized dispute to really do damage to the culture. Even if no one is outright dishonest, miscommunication could lead to a someone thinking they have been wronged to the tune of thousands of dollars.

I don't think... (read more)

3Jonas Vollmer7yFrom the discussion I gather that we're facing the following challenges: * Trust * Handling amounts that can't be traded * Maybe some technical challenges – once the number of trades, charities and countries increases, overview and coordination might become more difficult * Also, the charities will want to know who the actual donors are, and thank them These challenges could be resolved by a global network of EA organisations who offer donation trading (and, if possible in their legislation, donation regranting). Trust and professional communications and management seems easier to achieve with organisations who stick around longer-term than with individuals. At GBS Switzerland, we already have some of the technical and legal components needed for this (we're tax-deductible in several countries, can regrant donations, have a significant amount of donors who don't pay taxes, and have some nice spreadsheets). Making progress in this direction is not a top priority for us at the moment, but if you're interested in one of the things I've mentioned, please get in touch with me (and also Tom Ash, as he mentions below).
0Tom_Ash7yBrian, would you (or someone you find) be happy to be the arbiter?
0RyanCarey7yIt seems good to have an arbiter...
Help a Canadian give with a tax-deduction by swapping donations with them!

Howdy, I'm trying to make a donation to CEA of about $4,000 this month from Canada. Would be very glad to swap with you for AMF. If you're still up for this, please shoot me an email.

Where are you giving and why?

Worth noting that it can still be worth posting to your personal blog if only to increase how many people see it.

Open Thread

Very reasonable. Thanks Ryan.

Introduce Yourself

Hey, I'm a postdoc in q. info (although more on the decoherence and q. foundations side of things). I'm interested to know more about where you're at and how you found out about LessWrong. Shoot me an email if you want. My address is my username without the underscore @gmail.com .

Minor Updates

I lean against creating multiple fora. Even if it was a good idea in the long run, I think that it's better to start with one forum so that it's easier to achieve a critical mass. It's no exaggeration to say that LW's Main/Discussion distinction was one of the most hated features of the site. I also think that fragmenting an online community and decreasing its usability are two of the most damaging things you can do to a budding community website.

This was interesting to me.

Here's one more idea to throw out there: Divide the posts into "major"... (read more)

0Tom_Ash7yI like the major/minor idea, and tag filters generally. (Side note: I wasn't sure whether upvoting Jess' comment would be sufficient to express this.)
1RyanCarey7yThis is a fair suggestion. I guess my take on this is that most people care about reading good quality material a lot more than they care about length. For example, lots of Wei Dai's early posts [http://lesswrong.com/user/Wei_Dai/submitted/?count=34&after=t3_77y] on LessWrong were short but incisive, so they got upvoted. Even a checkbox with tags has disadvantages - Even if posts are categorised in stealth, if half of the posts are hidden a lot of the time, this complicates the experience of a new user. It's hard to get users to add tags and boring to have to tag things myself. This is all to benefit some fraction of users, maybe a quarter, who can then hide short posts. On balance, I lean towards simplicity. So if people have great links or questions, I think they should just post them to the front page. If they get 10+ karma and 10+ comments there, then it's an appropriate place for them.
Open Thread

Thanks for info Ryan. A couple of points:

(1) I don't think minor posts like "Here's an interesting article. Anyone have thoughts?" fit very well in the open thread. The open threads are kind of unruly, and it's hard to find anything in there. In particular, it's not clear when something new has been added.

One possibility is to create a second tier of posts which do not appear on the main page unless you specifically select it. Call it "minor posts" or "status updates" or whatever. (Didn't LessWrong have something like th... (read more)

2RyanCarey7yI agree that the links might not fit well in an open thread. An alternative might be to bundle up a bunch of links into a "links for November" type thread like State Star Codex. Then, people can put more links in the comments if appropriate. However, learn against improving discussion by subdividing discussion fora. The main/discussion distinction was one of LessWrong's most unpopular features. In the effective altruism community, we already have a subreddit, many facebook groups, many personal blogs, many Twitters, many Tumblrs, LessWrong, here and many other online locations. Moreover, given limited programmer resources, we're not currently looking for new features. Having said that, I'll look into the feasibility highlighting new comments because that seems like it would be useful. A private Facebook group is best for this. There's no straightforward way to prevent public pages from being indexed by sites like archive.today.
Open Thread

I'm still fuzzy on the relationship between the EA Facebook group and the EA forum. Are we supposed to move most or all the discussion that was going on in the FB group here? Will the FB be shut down, and if not what will is be used for?

I think the format of the forum will present a higher barrier to low-key discussion than the FB group, e.g. I'd guess people are much less likely to post an EA related new article if they don't have too much to add to it. This is primarily because the forum looks like a blog. Is FB style posting encouraged?

If this has a... (read more)

1SoerenMind7yI feel like a lot of potential is lost if we don't encourage asking questions and making smaller contributions (like on fb and the open thread) on the forum. I do understand that these kinds of posts don't fit into the main section of the forum. But what's the reasoning behind not having any subforums? I often think of issues I would post in subforums of this site, which I wouldn't bring up facebook (because 100s or 1000s will read it) and that doesn't fit into Main. An open thread is a nice step in the right direction. It does have significant disadvantages to subforum(s) though in my estimation: * No headlines for posts, so it's not scanable * You have to see the full post rather than the headline only * It's not that visible and the headline "open thread" doesn't really intrigue me as much as other posts. Also, I feel like topic-specific subforums would generally lower the barrier for people to post something. I guess I have this intuition because the posts won't be seen by (as many) people who are not interested in your post's topic. By now I've read Ryan's comment on subforums ( https://www.facebook.com/groups/effective.altruists/permalink/743662675690092/?comment_id=744027525653607&offset=0&total_comments=14) [https://www.facebook.com/groups/effective.altruists/permalink/743662675690092/?comment_id=744027525653607&offset=0&total_comments=14)] . In my estimation the lost potential outweighs the costs, so consider this a vote for subforums (or at least main/discussion). I'm happy to be convinced otherwise though.
4RyanCarey7yHey Jess. Good questions. Obviously, the relationship between these is mostly decided by the community, rather than by one individual, and will emerge gradually over some number of weeks. That said, I think it's good for most substantive discussion to move here. Here should also have some blog-length posts that are lighter and fun to read. Since most people are using the same names on Facebook as here, there are some advantages to keeping it open. It's a kind of bridge between internet and real world. It helps people to put faces to the names of people they're interacting with, which should increase willingness to meet or collaborate. As for what goes there, I think the stuff that goes there will include: * some links (e.g. Elon Musk made a bunch more dough of this nasa deal) * practical real-world stuff will go there, (e.g. "I'm going to X city, does anyone have a room to offer there") * specific topics (similar to the Open Threads. There should be enough minor EA discussion to go around) I'm kicking around a rough guidline in my head. Somethnig like "post it to the forum if it's at least three of 'fun to read', 'substantial', 'relevant' and 'reasoned'. If it's two of those things, then an open thread or facebook is more suitable. If it's only one of those things, then it's no good. Tom and I are thinking of ways to tie-in with the Hub. I think that the Hub could use the Forum to run a survey, whereas the Forum could use the Hub's map to identify people who might want to attend a meetup. Feedback helps, especially on the FB/Forum border. Anyway, I'll bundle these thoughts into my next update post.
9Tom_Ash7yI've chatted to Ryan about this, and the idea is that the forum is the place for people's writings on and discussion of EA, whereas the projects on http://effectivealtruismhub.com/ [http://effectivealtruismhub.com/] are for other things. For instance the EA Profiles [http://effectivealtruismhub.com/user/profiles] are the place for information about people - e.g. showing more about who the people writing here are, and (we plan) linking to those writings. So in that sense they should be nicely complementary.
6Peter Wildeford7yI thought the EA Facebook group was going to play "LW Discussion" to the EA Forum's "LW Main". Though the open thread does blur that line. There's also an EA Reddit [http://www.reddit.com/r/smartgiving] for posting articles.

Facebook is a terrible medium for discussion, so I hope everyone, or at least all the cool people, come over here and we have an active community. I don't know if this will happen. I think this forum would be a good place for links with discussion and not just blog posts.

Where I'm giving and why: Will MacAskill

My impression is more that FHI is at the startup stage and CSER is simply an idea people have been kicking around. Whether or not you support CSER would depend on whether or not you think it's actually going to be instantiated. Am I confused?

0Niel_Bowerman8yI'm not sure of the exact numbers but my impression is that FHI has perhaps half a dozen full-time staff members, and CSER has one part-time person who is based in FHI and has been working on grant applications but I am unclear about the long-term financial viability of having this person working on applying for grants.
Where I'm giving and why: Will MacAskill

I think the claim, which I do not necessarily support, would be this: Many people give to multiple orgs as a way of selfishly benefiting themselves (by looking good and affiliating with many good causes), whereas a "good" EAer might spread their donation to multiple orgs as a way to (a) persuade the rest of the world to accomplish more good or (b) coordinate better with other EAs, a la the argument you link with Julia. (Whether or not there's a morally important distinction between the laymen and the EAer as things actually take place in the real world is a bit dubious. EA arguments might just be a way to show off how well you can abstractly justify your actions.)

Where I'm giving and why: Will MacAskill

> They needn't be strangers. This has already happened in the UK EA community amongst EAs who met through 80,000 Hours and supported each other financially in the early training and internship stages of their earning to give careers.

Agreed, but if the funds are effectively restricted to people you know and can sort of trust, then the public registry loses most of its use. Just let it be known among your trusted circle that you have money that you'd be willing share for EA activities. This has the added benefit of not putting you in the awkward position of having to turn down less-trusted folks who request money.

0Niel_Bowerman8yYes, unless you were able to meet with people and create time to develop the neccessary trust. Also, like any grant-making foundation, I wouldn't expect people in the registry to fund all or even most of the oppertunities that came along, though the registry would lose some of its value if it appears to be unlikely to give out donations to good projects.
Where I'm giving and why: Will MacAskill

Will, are you saying that this fund would basically just be a registry? (As opposed to an actual central collection of money with some sort of manager.)

Do you really think people would just send money to 1st-world strangers (ii) on the promise that the recipient was training to earn to give? I have similar misgivings about (iv).

0Owen_Cotton-Barratt28yI don't know about the appropriate legal hurdles, but if you wanted to scale this, you would set it up as a loan with a reasonable interest rate rather than a gift. That way the individual needs to trust the central body which is making the loan (that it will use the money raised for good ends), rather than the central body trusting the individual. This is a much lower bar to cross.
0Niel_Bowerman8yIn addition to Carl's comments on why the registery would be easier, it has the added benefit of people being able to control their own funds and thus being more willing to contribute to the 'fund'. "Do you really think people would just send money to 1st-world strangers (ii) on the promise that the recipient was training to earn to give?" They needn't be strangers. This has already happened in the UK EA community amongst EAs who met through 80,000 Hours and supported each other financially in the early training and internship stages of their earning to give careers.