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"Specifically, do you see a justification for considering the former global catastrophic risks?"

Which is the "former", communicable or non-communicable?

Does the development of regional groupings like the EU improve X-risk mitigation, or exacerbate risks?

If they help mitigate risks, how could development of such groupings become aligned with US interests?





"Rather than “translating” effective altruism into new languages, it seems better to think in terms of creating a local movement from scratch that’s inspired by the ideas of effective altruism, but is highly adapted to the local context. Imagine that Will MacAskill was Chinese: then what would he have written?"


"Initial efforts to expand effective altruism into new languages should focus on making strong connections with a small number of people who have relevant expertise, via person-to-person outreach instead of mass media."


I must also disagree with the claim in your "Confucius vs Mozi" google-doc, that "Mozi has no conception of moral self-cultivation."

There is a whole chapter on the topic of "修身" or self-cultivation in Book 1 of Mozi. (

Here is an excerpt:

"Therefore the superior men are daily more energetic in performing their duty, but weaker in their desires, and more stately in their appearance. The way of the superior man makes the individual incorruptible in poverty and righteous when wealthy; it makes him love the living and mourn the dead. These four qualities of conduct cannot be hypocritically embodied in one's personality. There is nothing in his mind that goes beyond love; there is nothing in his behaviour that goes beyond respectfulness, and there is nothing from his mouth that goes beyond gentility. When one pursues such a way until it pervades his four limbs and permeates his flesh and skin, and until he becomes white-haired and bald-headed without ceasing, one is truly a sage."

One might also suppose that a philosopher like Mo Zi focused on universal-caring might be a pacifist, or advocate renouncing the family.  But many sections of Mo Zi emphasize military defense, and even more sections emphasize filial piety and paternal affection.

I would characterize Mo Zi's position on universal love as claiming and supporting the following two points of emphasis:

  • Enlarging the moral circle creates win/win situations. 
  • It is valuable to give others some level of moral status. Even if they are foreigners, or outside the family unit, there is strategic value in affording them some level of generosity. Leaving a moral-vacuum in one's sense of care for some out-group is a poor strategy.

I've been reading Mo Zi ( and I find I must disagree with your claim that Mo Zi "emphasised impartial caring over attachment to one’s family".

Instead, Mo Zi frames universal caring as a sometimes-difficult but overall more-effective path to general success, including the important end-goal of care for one's parents.

Let me reference this relevant excerpt as support (

"It raises the question, when one does not think in terms of benefits and harm to one's parents would it be filial piety? Mozi replied: Now let us inquire about the plans of the filial sons for their parents. I may ask, when they plan for their parents, whether they desire to have others love or hate them? Judging from the whole doctrine (of filial piety), it is certain that they desire to have others love their parents. Now, what should I do first in order to attain this? Should I first love others' parents in order that they would love my parents in return, or should I first hate others' parents in order that they would love my parents in return? Of course I should first love others' parents in order that they would love my parents in return. Hence those who desire to be filial to one another's parents, if they have to choose (between whether they should love or hate others' parents), had best first love and benefit others' parents."

当我看 Will MacAskill 或者其他 EA 学家讨论跟 EA 有关的哲学传统时,我发现他们提到的历史比较偏向欧洲。他们参考许多古代欧洲文献,但很少提及古代亚洲文献。我个人不能对这些 EA 过于批判,因为这个问题是典型的英语母语和西方课程的影响。但这仍然会导致分析和讨论不完整。我也会内疚自己有这样的忽略。


您是否会特别推荐任何其他书籍或章节,以扩展EA, 以更好的方式与我们的中国同事联系?

Proposed corrections to some possible typing errors:

Original text: "Seabirds killed by per capita plastic marine pollution in 2010"
Proposed edit: "Seabirds killed by plastic marine pollution in 2010, per capita"


Original text: "Sea mammals killed by per capita plastic marine pollution in 2010"
Proposed edit: "Sea mammals killed by plastic marine pollution in 2010, per capita"


It's birds-killed-per-capita, not pollution-per-capita.