Christiano and Amodei are both at OpenAI. Jan Leike, Shane Legg, and Miljan Martic are all at DeepMind. (Jan Leike is also former FHI and is still a research associate with us :) ).
I wrote this in a google doc and copy-pasted, without intending the numbers to be links to anything. I'm not really sure why it made them highlight like a hyperlink.
The closest seems to be really well done analytic philosophy. I recommend Nick Bostrom's work as a great example of this.
I also think that is seems similar to what mathematicians, theoretical physicists, and model builders frequently do.
Other good examples would probably be Thomas Schelling in IR and nuclear security. Coase in economics. Maybe Feynman?