I’ve been trying to answer a similar version of this question myself. Specifically, should I buy carbon offsets? I detailed my decision-making process here, on my personal blog. I also found this paper (on the mortality cost of carbon) very helpful.
In short, I concluded that spending money on carbon offsets is likely an order-of-magnitude less effective (in terms of lives saved per $ spent) than donating to the most effective charities, which usually work on global-poverty-related issues.
My interpretation of the available research is that the risk that climate change causes civilizational collapse or a species-ending event is quite low. And so, I think the risk climate change wipes out the benefits of your donations is also low. This discussion of how to think about the risk of catastrophic climate change outcomes was helpful, too.