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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.[1] Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body.[1] Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis.[1] Around 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kill about half of those affected.[1] Typical symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.[1] It was historically referred to as consumption due to the weight loss associated with the disease.[8]

In 2018, one quarter of the world's population was thought to have a latent infection of TB.[6] New infections occur in about 1% of the population each year.[12] In 2020, an estimated 10 million people developed active TB, resulting in 1.5 million deaths, making it the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease after COVID-19.[13] As of 2018, most TB cases occurred in the regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (24%), and the Western Pacific (18%), with more than 50% of cases being diagnosed in seven countries: India (27%), China (9%), Indonesia (8%), the Philippines (6%), Pakistan (6%), Nigeria (4%), and Bangladesh (4%).[14] By 2021, the number of new cases each year was decreasing by around 2% annually.

Stop TB Partnership

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