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Related: Ideas for AI labs: Reading list. See also: AI labs' statements on governance.

This document is about AI policy ideas. It's largely from an x-risk perspective. Strikethrough denotes sources that I expect are less useful for you to read.


Lists of government (especially US government) AI policy ideas. I recommend carefully reading the lists in the first ~5 bullets in this list, noticing ideas to zoom in on, and skipping the rest of this section.


Some sources focus on policy levers rather than particular policy proposals.

Other policy guidance


Some sources focus on abstract desiderata rather than how to achieve them.


Policy proposals in the mass media

Responses to government requests for comment

See also

Very non-exhaustive.

This post is largely missing policy levers beyond domestic policy: international relations,[2] international organizations, and standards.

Some sources are roughly sorted within sections by a combination of x-risk-relevance, quality, and influentialness– but sometimes I didn't bother to try to sort them, and I've haven't read all of them.

Please have a low bar to suggest additions, substitutions, rearrangements, etc.

Thanks to Jakub Kraus and Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh for some sources.

Last updated: 10 July 2023.

  1. ^

    - I think these sources each focus on a particular policy idea– I haven't even skimmed all of them
    - Very non-exhaustive
    - Thanks to Sepasspour et al. 2022 and a private list for some sources

  2. ^

    International agreements seem particularly important and neglected.

    One source (not focused on policy ideas or levers): Nuclear Arms Control Verification and Lessons for AI Treaties (Baker 2023).

    Oliver Guest agrees that there are not amazing sources but mentions:

    - CSET on international security in the context of military AI
    - CNAS on international arms control and confidence-building measures for military AI

Sorted by Click to highlight new comments since:
  • Various private lists and works in progress

Will there be a second post or will this post be edited to include those? These omnibuses are extremely valuable and important for preventing people from reinventing the wheel, but the whole point of  centralization of knowledge is centralization of knowledge. If they're living documents, then people might miss new ideas, when ideally they would have a bunch of new potentially game-changing ideas slapped on their desk in a way that they would notice.

  • I'll try to edit this post to include new/newly public sources. (If the number of such sources continues to explode, I'll raise the bar.)
  • This post will generally not include private work, because it's private.

(Edit re MMMaas: done, thanks.)

Thanks for collating this, Zach! Just to note, my 'TAI Governance: a Literature Review' is publicly shareable -- but since we'll be cleaning up the main doc as a report the coming week, could you update the link to this copy? https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CDj_sdTzZGP9Tpppy7PdaPs_4acueuNxTjMnAiCJJKs/edit#heading=h.5romymfdade3

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