Automation is the application of machines to tasks once performed by humans.
Acemoglu, Daron & Pascual Restrepo (2019) Automation and new tasks: how technology displaces and reinstates labor, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 33, pp. 3–30.
Orr, Peter (2015) Which careers are most likely to be automated?, 80,000 Hours, February 4.