Goodhart's Law states that when a proxy (or metric) for some value becomes the target of optimization pressure, the proxy will cease to be a good proxy.[1] One example of this might be a university that promotes researchers based on how many papers they publish. Researchers might start publishing seriously flawed papers in low-integrity publications (or cutting a single paper they were going to publish into three incomplete papers without a real reason besides the promotion incentive) in order to get the promotion. 

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