Antitrust law (often called competition law outside the US) is the body of law intended to prevent monopolization and cartelization of commercial markets. 

Antitrust is particularly relevant to the governance of artificial intelligence, as it may in some cases constrain safety cooperation between competitors.

Further reading

Brundage, Miles, Shahar Avin, Jasmine Wang, Haydn Belfield, Gretchen Kreuger et al. (2020) Toward trustworthy AI development: Mechanisms for supporting verifiable claims, arXiv:2004.07213.
Appendix V on p. 70 discusses antitrust as a potential concern for AI safety collaborations between competitors.

Fischer, Sophie-Charlotte et al. (2021) AI policy levers: A review of the U.S. government’s tools to shape AI research, development, and deployment, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.
The section on pp. 41–44 discusses antitrust enforcement as a means of influencing AI research, development and deployment.

Hua, Shin-Shin & Haydn Belfield (2021) AI & antitrust: Reconciling tensions between competition law and cooperative AI development, Yale Journal of Law & Technology, vol. 23, pp. 415–550.

O'Keefe, Cullen (2020) How will national security considerations affect antitrust decisions in AI? An examination of historical precedents, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.

O'Keefe, Cullen (2021) Antitrust-compliant AI industry self-regulation, SSRN Electronic Journal, Legal Priorities Project working paper no. 6.

governance of artificial intelligence | law | policy | Windfall Clause