If we take "tangible" to mean executable:
But as Kurt Lewin once said "there's nothing so practical as a good theory". In particular, theory scales automatically and conceptual work can stop us from wasting effort on the wrong things.
- CAIS (2019) pivots away from the classic agentic model, maybe for the better
- The search for mesa-optimisers (2019) is a step forward from previous muddled thoughts on optimisation, and they make predictions we can test them on soon.
- The Armstrong/Shah discussion of value learning changed my research direction for the better.
Also Everitt et al (2019) is both: a theoretical advance with good software.