Refuges (also known as bunkers or shelters) are structures designed to help humanity survive a global catastrophe.

Further reading

Baum, Seth D. (2015) Confronting the threat of nuclear winter, Futures, vol. 72, pp. 69–79.
Contains a brief discussion of refuges in section 4.2 (p. 7).

Baum, Seth D., David C. Denkenberger & Jacob Haqq-Misra (2015) Isolated refuges for surviving global catastrophes, Futures, vol. 72, pp. 45–56.

Beckstead, Nick (2015) How much could refuges help us recover from a global catastrophe?, Futures, vol. 72, pp. 36–44.

Boyd, Matt & Nick Wilson (2020) The prioritization of island nations as refuges from extreme pandemics, Risk Analysis, vol. 40, pp. 227–239.

Church, George (2022) SafeHomx (Home Sweet Biome): Biosecurity, refuges and/or ‘space colonies on earth’, George Church’s Website.

Hanson, Robin (2008) Catastrophe, social collapse, and human extinction, in Nick Bostrom & Milan M. Ćirković (eds.) Global Catastrophic Risks, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 363–377.

Turchin, Alexey & Brian Patrick Green (2017) Aquatic refuges for surviving a global catastrophe, Futures, vol. 89, pp. 26–37.

Turchin, Alexey & Brian Patrick Green (2019) Islands as refuges for surviving global catastrophes, Foresight, vol. 21, pp. 100–117.

civilizational collapse | existential risk | global catastrophic risk | nuclear winter | resilient food