Fantastic writeup, I haven't read all of it yet, but I really want to shout out whoever made the charts. All of these charts are super well done, I really respect the effort that went into them, and it totally paid off. Especially the first chart, that could have very easily been a very ugly pie chart, is instead a beautiful linear proportion chart. Hats off!
This is a nice concept, and it reminds me of the beginning of Nate Soares' Replacing Guilt book/blog post series. Specifically, the idea "you're allowed to fight for something," featured on the main page. Both Beneficentrism and Soares' early posts are focused on convincing people that there are goals worth achieving. Beneficentrism promotes a specific goal (general welfare), while Soares is more generally saying that it's OK to pick a goal and try to achieve it, but the tone feels pretty similar to me.
Commenting to say that many of the quote blocks you have in Substack didn't make it into this forum post, making it pretty hard to read here. Recommend to others that they check out the Substack post for easier reading.