This literature review examines a range of institutional models that have been proposed over the year for the international governance of AI. The review specifically focuses on proposals that would involve the creation of new international institutions for AI. As such, it focuses on seven models for international AI institutions with distinct functions. These models are:
- Scientific consensus building
- Political consensus-building and norm-setting
- Coordination of policy and regulation
- Enforcement of standards or restrictions
- Stabilization and emergency response
- International joint research
- Distribution of benefits and access
Part I consists of the literature review. For each model, we provide (i) a description of each model’s functions and types; (ii) the most common examples of each model; (iii) some under-explored examples that are not (often) mentioned in the AI governance literature but that show promise; (iv) a review of proposals for the application of that model to the international regulation of AI; and (v) critiques of the model both generally and in its potential application to AI.
Part II briefly discusses some considerations for further research concerning the design of international institutions for AI, including the effectiveness of each model at accomplishing its aims; treaty-based regulatory frameworks; other institutional models not covered in this review; the compatibility of institutional functions; and institutional options to host a new international AI governance body.
Overall, the review covers seven institutional models, as well as more than thirty-three commonly invoked examples of those models, twenty-two additional examples, and forty-seven proposals of new AI institutions based on those models. Table 1 summarizes these findings.
Table 1: Overview of institutional models, examples, and proposed institutions surveyed
Under- explored examples
Proposed AI institutions
|Scientific consensus- building|
|Political consensus- building and norm-setting|
|Coord. of policy and regulation|
|Enforcement of standards or restrictions|
|Stabilization and emergency response|
|Intern. joint research|
|Distribution of benefits and access|