Animal product alternatives (or alternative proteins) are meat, eggs, and dairy products not made from living animals. Two main types of animal product alternatives are cell-based ("clean meat") and plant-based ("plant meat").
Improving animal welfare is a promising focus area. One strategy for improving animal welfare is to reduce consumption of animal products. Creating more attractive alternatives to meat, dairy products and eggs may help to encourage more people to reduce consumption of these products, and so reduce the suffering caused by factory farming.
Annika Lonkila & Minna Kaljonen (2021) Promises of meat and milk alternatives: An integrative literature review on emergent research themes, Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 38, pp. 625–639.
Cargill, Natalie & Keiran Harris (2018) How exactly clean meat is created & the advances needed to get it into every supermarket, according to food scientist Marie Gibbons, 80,000 Hours, April 10.
Huang, Amy (2020) Closing gaps in alternative protein science, EA Student Summit 2020, October 24.
Open Philanthropy (2015) Animal product alternatives, Open Philanthropy, December.
For a literature review see Annika Lonkila & Minna Kaljonen (2021) Promises of meat and milk alternatives: An integrative literature review on emergent research themes, Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 38, pp. 625–639.
Rorheim, Adrian et al. (2016) Cultured meat: an ethical alternative to industrial animal farming, policy paper by Sentience Politics.
He, Jiang et al. (2020) A review of research on plant‐based meat alternatives: Driving forces, history, manufacturing, and consumer attitudes, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 19, pp. 2639–2656.