Technology, research or artifacts are  dual-use if they have both upside and downside potential. Sometimes the term is used more narrowly to describe technology, research or artifacts that can be used for both civilian and military purposes.[1]

Further reading

Forge, John (2010) A note on the definition of “dual use”, Science and Engineering Ethics, vol. 16, pp. 111–118.

Mellon, William S. (2016) Dual use research, in Carole R. Baskin & Alan P. Zelicoff (eds.) Ensuring National Biosecurity: Institutional Biosafety Committees, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 93–115.

Reading, Further & Peter Dale (2006) Dual-use technology, in Richard J. Samuels (ed.) Encyclopedia of United States National Security, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, pp. 220–222.

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    See e.g. Jürgen Altmann (2010) Dual use, in David Guston (ed.) Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Society, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, pp. 171–173. See also p. 402, footnote † in Sebastian Farquhar, Owen Cotton-Barratt & Andrew Snyder-Beattie (2017) Pricing externalities to balance public risks and benefits of research, Health Security, vol. 15, pp. 401–408.